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       Coal was first mined along the outcrop. Miners did not go underground because nothing had been invented to prevent cave-ins.  Open pits were excavated with picks and shovels. The pits started at the outcrop and got wider as the coal was removed.  Eventually, Timbers and close fitting wooden staves were used to support the roof of the underground mines and prevent cave-ins.Advances in mining technology allowed for the first underground mines in the early 18th century.(Goode, 1997)